Department of Psychology


Professor Kim A. Bard

  • Qualifications: BA, MA, PhD
  • Role Title: Professor of Comparative Developmental Psychology
  • Address: King Henry Building, King Henry 1st Street, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 2DY
  • Telephone: 023 9284 6332
  • Email:
  • Department: Department of Psychology
  • Faculty: Faculty of Science


Kim A Bard is Professor of Comparative Developmental Psychology.  Prior to arriving at Portsmouth in 1999, she was a  Research Scientist at Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, where she investigated the roles of emotion and socialization in early development, and designed a Responsive Care Nursery for chimpanzees to enhance their species-typical development.  She received her BA with Honours in Psychology (in 1976) from Wheaton College, MA, USA and her MA (in 1981) and PhD (in 1988) in Comparative/Developmental Psychology from Georgia State University, GA, USA, the latter based on fieldwork with orangutans in Borneo, Indonesia. Currently, Prof. Bard has published 80 peer-reviewed journal articles and 37 book chapters.

Teaching Responsibilities

Prof. Bard lectures on the BSc (Hons) Psychology course in her specialty areas of comparative psychology, infancy, observational methods, and emotional development.  She supervises honours projects that involve early social cognition, nonhuman primates, and emotional development, in addition to projects that use observational or ethological methods.

Research Interests

Kim Bard has a distinctive perspective, which concerns understanding the process of development in evolution. She conducts empirical studies with an eye to clarifying universal and species-specific characteristics of humans and great apes. Her studies of social cognition suggest that humans and great apes share a large degree of plasticity, especially in early socio-emotional communicative abilities.  These social cognitive abilities include intentional and referential communication, and social referencing (i.e., the ability to seek information from a caregiver about novel objects and use that emotional information to regulate behaviour).  The study of these abilities across species leads to better understanding of the precursors, contexts, and sequelae of social cognition in human development.


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KA Bard, PI, 2010-2013, The Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant, “Socio-emotional experiences and primate social cognition”.  

KA Bard, PI, 2010-2011, The Leverhulme Trust Visiting Professorship for Prof Sarah T. Boysen at University of Portsmouth, UK.

Dr. Lola Canamero, Project leader, University of Herfordshire, 2006-2010, EU-FP6-2005-IST-6, “FEELIX GROWING: FEEL, Interact, eXpress: a Global appRoach to develOpment With INterdisciplinary Grounding". KA Bard was the PI for University of Portsmouth partner participation

Lindsey Jackson, PI, Shooting Fish Theatre Company. Bard, Co-Applicant. 2010-2012, Wellcome Trust Small Arts Award."Emotional Construction”.

KA Bard, PI, 2002-2005, The Leverhulme Trust, Research Interchange Grant entitled “Chimpanzee Emotions: Development of a facial action coding system”.



Bard, K.A.  (2012).  Emotional engagement: The development of chimpanzee minds.  Annual Meeting of the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology, March 22 - 24, in Savannah, Georgia, USA.

Bard, K.A.  (2011).  The role of emotion in the development of social cognition in chimapnzees.  Finaly Lecturer, International Master in Affective Neuroscience. Summer Session, 3-8 July, Florence, Italy.

Bard, K.A.  (2011).  The role of emotional engagements in the development of chimpanzee minds.  XX Congresso Nazionale Associazione Primatologica Italiana (Italian Primatological Society) meeting, 10-13 April, Bussolengo, Italy.

Invited talks

Bard, K.A.  (2013).  Social cognition in chimpanzees.  International Summer School on social human-robot interactions.  Christ's College, Cambridge, 26-30 August.

Davila-Ross, M., Jesus, G., Osborne, J., & Bard, K.A.  (2013).  Testing for shared ancestry of emotional expressions: 'Laugh faces' in chimpanzees.  ISRE Postconference on Facial Expressions, organized by Jose Miguel Fernandez Dols and Jim Russell, 6th August, University of California, Berkeley.

Bard, K.A., Davila Ross, M., Hutchinson, J., Billard, A., & Hopkins, W.D.  (2012).  How do chimpanzees respond to Robota, who can move as they move?  Robotics/Animal Behaviour Workshop, 24-25 May, University of Lincoln, Lincoln.

Boysen, S.T. & Bard, K.A. (2011).  Co-organizers of a 1-day Mini-conference on Primate Enculturation, Centre of Comparative and Evolutionary Psychology, Department of Psychology, 15 June, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth UK.

Bard, K.A.  (2011).  Primary and secondary intersubjectivity in chimpanzees.  Tribute to Prof Colwyn Trevarthen in celebration of his 80th Birthday, conference entitled "Intersubjectivity: From birth for life", St Cecilia's Hall, University of Edinburgh, 15 Oct.

Hiolle, A., Cañamero, L., Davila Ross, M., & Bard, K.A. (2012).  Eliciting caregiving behaviour in dyadic human-robot attachment-like interactions.  In the "Highlights of Intelligent User Interfaces(IUI)" session, in the 2012 International Conference on IUI, 15-17 Feb, Lisbon, Portugal.

Conference presentations

KA Bard, B Hewlett, K Ross, B. Wallauer, H. Keller, S. Boysen, & T. Matsuzawa. (2013).  The effects of lived experiences on primate social cognition.  2013 Meeting of the European Federation for Primatology, 10-13 September,  Antwerp, Belgium

Bard, K.A., Hewlett, B., Ross, K., Wallauer, B., Keller, H., Boysen, S.T., & Matsuzawa, T. (2013).   Emotion, rearing experiences, and joint attention in human and chimpanzee 1-year-olds. CogDev 2013 BPS, 4-6 September, Reading

KA Bard, B Hewlett, K Ross, B. Wallauer, H. Keller, S. Boysen, & T. Matsuzawa.  (2013).  Emotion and joint attention in human and chimpanzee 1-year-olds.  International Society for Research in Emotion, 3-5 August,  Berkeley, CA, USA

Bard, K.A., Bakeman, R., Boysen, S.T., & Leavens, D.A. (2013).  The development of social cognition in chimpanzee an dhuman infants.  Primate Society of Great Britain Spring Meeting, 2-3 April, University of Lincoln, Lincoln. 

Marina Davila-Ross, Goncalo Jesus, & Kim A. Bard. (2012). The unimodal and multimodal expressions of laughter in chimpanzees.  International Primatological Society Conference, Cancun, Mexico.

A.W. Clay, K. A. Bard, M.A. Bloomsmith, T.L. Maple, M.J. Marr, & H. Rollins.  (2012).  Disorganized versus organized attachment styles in captive laboratory-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).   American Society of Primatology, 20-23 June, Sacramento CA.

A.W. Clay, K. A. Bard, M.A. Bloomsmith, T.L. Maple, M.J. Marr, & H. Rollins. (2012).  Longitudinal effects of differential rearing in laboratory-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).   American Society of Primatology, 20-23 June, Sacramento CA.

K. A. Bard, M. van IJzendoorn, M. Bakersman-Kranenburg, & K. Ivan. (2012).   Attachment in chimpanzees raised in laboratory nurseries. XVIII Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, 7-9 June, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

K.A. Bard, R. Bakeman, S.T. Boysen, & D.A. Leavens.  (2012).  Joint attention and cooperation develop in chimpanzee and human infants.  Comparative Cognition Society Annual Conference, 7-11 March, Melbourne FL USA

Postgraduate Research Supervised

Andrea Clay - "Attachment and early rearing:   Longitudinal effects in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)".  PhD awarded in 2012, Bard was a committee member and external supervisor (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA).

Vanessa Herring-Maguire- "A longitudinal study of the function and development of gestures in chimpanzees", M.Phil awarded in 2012, Bard was Director of Studies

Ariel Beck - "Perception of emotional body language displayed by animated characters", PhD awarded in 2011, Bard was a supervisor.

Kirsty Ross - "Joyful expressions in infancy: cross-species comparisons", PhD awarded in 2011, Bard was Director of Studies, funded by ESRC.

Kate Thorsteinsson - "Emotional expression in social interactions of infants with and without Down Syndrome", PhD awarded in 2011, Bard was Director of Studies, funded by European Commission. FP6-IST.

Achievement and Recognition

President, European Federation for Primatology, 2014 - 2018

President, Primate Society of Great Britain, 2010-2013

Council member, International Primatological Society

Advisory Board, Primates (an international journal of ethology and comparative psychology), 1996 - present,

Associate Editor, 2007-2012, British Journal of Psychology


American Society of Primatologists

Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour 

British Psychological Society (Developmental Section)

International Primatological Society                    

International Society for Infant Studies

International Society for Research in Emotions

Primate Society of Great Britain

Society for Research in Child Development