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Principles of Referencing

First things first ... Make sure you are following the referencing system used in your department. Check your course handbook or ask your tutor if you are unsure.


Try the Referencing@Portsmouth website (

Download the Library Guide for  APA  6th ed .


Vancouver style is used within School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences - are you sure this is the system your tutor wants you to use?

Try the Vancouver section of the Referencing@Portsmouth website (

Download the Library Guide for Vancouver Format 

Oscola (Law)

Try the Oscola section of the Referencing@Portsmouth website (

Download the following Library guides for Oscola referencing

You can also look at these resources:

The full official guidance on this system of referencing. (official guide) (pdf)

for guidance onreferencing international sources only

For sources not specifically referred to in OSCOLA 4th edition

Use this to decipher others' abbreviations or to create your own using the preferred abbreviation given here.

A tutorial with useful self tests for those starting with OSCOLA



What is it?
A one-stop website for advice on how to reference different types of information sources in the University of Portsmouth agreed style (APA). Vancouver and Oscola referencing styles have now been added too.
How does it help?
It helps students by giving advice on both how to reference sources in the text and in the bibliography/reading list, plus other sources of help. It helps lecturers and support staff because it provides an authority list of how to reference different sources.
Can I suggest other types of material to be included?
Of course, please e-mail your Faculty Librarian.