Funded PhD opportunities
Exploring the role of social factors and oxidative stress in the development and pathophysiology of stereotypic behaviour using a large animal model: the domestic horse.
- Application end date: 11th February 2018
- Funding Availability: Funded PhD project (International students only)
- Department: Department of Psychology
- PhD Supervisor: Dr Leanne Proops, Dr Matt Parker, Dr Sebastian McBride
Project code: PSYC4100218 - This project is only open to International (non-EU) students
Background: Stereotypies are repetitive, invariant compulsive behavioural sequences often observed in captive or domestic animals. Owing to the relative infrequency of their observation in wild- or freeranging animals, stereotypies are assumed to be a product of captivity (1). Stereotypies are more commonly observed in animals kept in social isolation or sub-optimal environments lacking sufficient species-relevant enrichment (2); thus, their presence is often considered to be an indicator of poor welfare (3). Domestic horses, particularly those kept in intensive housing systems (boxes, stalls, etc.) show a range of stereotypic behaviours, including oral (crib-biting) and locomotor (weaving) behaviours (4).
One strong risk factor for the development of stereotypic behaviour is social isolation (5, 6) and isolation rearing is known to be a strong risk factor for the development of stereotypic behaviours in horses (7). Despite this, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that link social behaviour and stereotypies. It may be that social deficits are a risk factor and/or important in the pathogenesis of stereotypic behaviour. In support of this hypothesis, studies have shown that social isolation results in increased cortico-striatal oxidative stress markers in rodents (8) and that crib-biting horses have increased levels of several oxidative stress markers at rest, which further increase during crib-biting behaviour (9). Moreover, crib-biting is linked to increased dopamine activity within the striatal nuclei in the midbrain (10), suggesting that crib-biters may be in a permanent hyperdopaminergic state, with dopamine metabolism being responsible for a number of oxidative free-radicals (11).
Collectively, this evidence suggests a possible link between social behaviour, social interactions and stereotypic behaviour. In particular, sub-optimal social events may increase the oxidative free-radical status of the animal, via shifts in dopamine physiology, to produce the stereotypy phenotype. Furthermore, there is substantial evidence to suggest that free radical levels can be significantly reduced through the ingestion of antioxidants (12). Antioxidant supplementation may therefore have the exciting potential to reduce stereotypy development in animals predisposed to this abnormal behavioural condition.
Aims and objectives: The central aim of this PhD is to understand the role of social and neurobiological factors in the development of stereotypic behaviour. First, the student will examine social behaviour in stereotypic, and non-stereotypic horses utilising both direct observation of natural behaviour and experimental manipulation (e.g., watching controlled, dyadic interactions). The hypothesis for this first phase is that stereotypic horses will differ in the quality and quantity of social interactions. Secondly, neurophysiological functioning will be assessed. Specifically, dopaminergic function will be assessed via validated behavioural and psychological tests (cognitive tasks and SBR) to confirm the link between stereotypic behaviours and oxidative stress. Physiological assays will also determine oxytocin and cortisol levels. Finally, the student will explore whether socio-behavioural deficits are a cause or consequence of stereotypic behaviour. The effects of changes in the social environment (social isolation versus group housing) on behaviour will be monitored and the dietary intake of subjects will be experimentally manipulated (via the introduction of food supplements) to determine whether these interventions decrease stereotypic behaviour and reverse socio-behavioural deficits.
You’ll need a good first degree from an internationally recognised university (depending upon chosen course, minimum second class or equivalent) or a Master’s degree in an appropriate subject. Exceptionally, equivalent professional experience and/or qualifications will be considered. English language proficiency at a minimum of IELTS band 6.5 with no component score below 6.0.
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How to Apply
You can apply online at www.port.ac.uk/applyonline. You are required to create an account which gives you the flexibility to save the form, log out and return to it at any time convenient to you.
A link to the online application form and comprehensive guidance notes can be found at www.port.ac.uk/pgapply.
When applying, please quote project code: PSYC4100218.
Interview date: TBC
Start date: 1st October 2018.
This project is only open to International (non-EU) students.
Eligible applicants will be considered for the Portsmouth Global PhD scholarship scheme.
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