Lack of time, training, and understanding - Barriers to police investigations into widespread financial crime unveiled
A majority of police detectives in England and Wales investigating financial crime do not have sufficient knowledge to build a successful case.
That’s the finding of new research from the Institute of Criminal Justice Studies at the University of Portsmouth, looking into why results of such investigations vary so widely, especially when the crimes account for half of all criminal activity in the UK.
The report, published in Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, finds that only 40 per cent of investigators understood the process by which fraud is reported. A third of those questioned said they had not received proper training in how to investigate financial crime. There was also a poor perception of fraud and the impact on victims amongst those questioned.
The police service in England and Wales has been subject of much criticism in the past two decades over the response to financial crime.
Researchers found that in many cases investigators had a negative view of their work, and did not have the time, training or determination. Financial crime is perceived to be notoriously challenging to investigate. Investigations into less prolific, but higher profile and headline grabbing crimes are known to get better results. Their report builds a picture of why investigations into financial crimes are largely unsuccessful, and it makes a series of recommendations to improve outcomes.
Lead author Paul Gilmour, Lecturer of Criminal Justice and Policing, School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Portsmouth, said: “The police service in England and Wales has been subject of much criticism in the past two decades over the response to financial crime. Many studies have reported failures in how the police investigate and prosecute financial crime, which have led to many victims being dissatisfied with the service provided by police. Despite this, there has been little research into the barriers facing police investigators entrusted with tackling financial crime.”
A recent study by Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services (HMICFRS) concluded that the policing response to fraud is ineffective, with victims of fraud often left dissatisfied with the quality of the police’s investigation into fraud. Less than three per cent of fraud reported to police between 2017 and 2018 led to any type of positive outcome, such as a charge, summons, caution, or community service. These statistics are especially disappointing considering that fraud and related computer crimes accounted for almost half of all crime in England and Wales in the year ending December 2019 (Office for National Statistics, 2020).
The police need a better appreciation of financial crime, to help improve the service delivered to victims and to prioritise this often undervalued field of policing.
Paul Gilmour said: “Our article reports on a study into such barriers, through surveys and interviews with investigators that aimed to better understand the challenges faced by police forces within England and Wales. It demonstrates several overriding practical and cultural issues that inhibit the success of investigations. The article concludes that police need a better appreciation of financial crime, to help improve the service delivered to victims and to prioritise this often undervalued field of policing.”
The report found that financial crimes need to be prioritised, with all sectors of the police service needing to understand that they have an important role to play in the success of an investigation. Researchers also recognised that resources dedicated to fighting financial crime have struggled to compete with other policing priorities. It suggests improved training will allow investigators to better judge and, therefore, prioritise those cases that warrant further investigation.