4 people in discussion in a business meeting
UCAS Code
M1NC
Mode of Study
Full-time, Full-time sandwich with work placement
Duration
3 years full-time, 4 years sandwich with work placement
Start Date
September 2022
Accredited
Yes

Overview

Would you like to learn skills in business leadership and people management at the same time as gaining a qualifying law degree (QLD)?

This Bachelor of Laws (LLB) is a fully accredited, qualifying law degree (QLD), which gives you the choice to study for your solicitor exams or your Bar exams after you graduate. Alongside your study of law you'll gain knowledge of:

  • corporate social responsibility
  • ethical decision making
  • strategic management
  • people management

This course is ideal if you're considering a career in corporate law, which is one of the most highly paid sectors of law (Prospects 2021). It will also equip you for a career in business.

All our law degrees also offer you another route to qualifying as a lawyer. If you take the CILEx Graduate Fast-track Diploma module in your final year, you'll be able to apply for work immediately when you graduate as a paralegal or trainee legal executive. You can then complete your training to become a Chartered Legal Executive whilst you work.

If you take our Law in Practice module you'll gain 3 months work experience that can count towards your qualifying work experience for the new Solicitors Qualifying Exam (SQE). You'll also have the option of a paid work placement between years 2 and 3 that will increase your employability.

The thing that attracted to me to Portsmouth initially was the course’s balance between academic study and practical application. You wouldn't just learn all the technical things you needed from a book and be done with them, you’d also be taught how to apply them to real life cases that you might encounter down the road.

Tom Storey, Alumnus, LLB Law with Business

New Solicitors Qualifying Exam

The route to qualifying as a solicitor is changing.

If you complete or start this course, accept an offer of a place, or pay a non-refundable deposit (international students only) by 21 September 2021 (inclusive) you can choose to take either the Legal Practice Course (LPC) or the new Solicitors Qualifying Examination (SQE) after graduation. If you accept an offer after 21 September 2021 you'll need to take the SQE to qualify as a solicitor. The content and mode of assessment of many of our modules provide a good foundation for further specific SQE preparation.

Learn your craft in our courtroom
Our replica crown court makes your learning real

Watch this short video to discover our replica courtroom and how you'll practise trials and hearings in this realistic setting.

The benefits of having a replica Crown Court are that if one of our students wants to be a barrister in the future or a solicitor advocate, then it really gives them the opportunity to practise a trial and various court hearings in a courtroom setting.

Although this is a crown court, so it's a criminal court, we also use it for civil cases too. We're one of the only universities in the country that has a replica courtroom. This really gives students, when they go on from university, some really important skills that are valuable not only in a legal career, but also in a lot of other careers as well.

The student Law Society do a lot of activities in here, run mock trials, mooting competitions, and it gives our students really a chance to let their hair down and have a bit of fun in here.

We use the wigs, we use the gowns, we get a real judge in and we've got the cameras in here so you can go and film your performances.

You can -- it's a really good learning space. It's so lovely to see how our students grow in the years that they're with us. Our replica courtroom helps us to do that.

What you'll experience

  • Your teaching is shaped by expert staff who have been practicing lawyers and business people and who understand how the legal and business landscapes are changing
  • Your teaching will also be informed by our research expertise in areas such as data protection, legal education and commercial law
  • You'll have a wide choice of optional modules, so you can choose the areas of law you're most interested in
  • You'll get lots of practice at the type of assessment used in the first part of the new Solicitors Qualifying Exam (SQE)
  • You'll have unrivalled support to help you achieve your goals
  • You'll benefit from expert guest lecturers

You can choose to:

  • Take our advocacy module, which prepares you to put a case in both criminal and civil courts
  • Volunteer in our General Legal Advice Clinic, getting real-world practice of applying what you've learned
  • Join in mooting competitions in our replica courtroom
  • Take a community lawyer placement with a local partner business
  • Take 1-year paid placement to boost your employability and build contacts
  • Gain your CILEx diploma to set you on the road to qualifying as a Chartered Legal Executive

Accredited by:

This course is accredited by the Bar Standards Board, the Solicitors Regulation Authority and CILEx.
TEF Gold Teaching Excellence Framework

Entry requirements​

Entry requirements

Typical offers
  • A levels – AAB–ABB
  • UCAS points – 128–136 points from 3 A levels or equivalent (calculate your UCAS points)
  • BTECs (Extended Diplomas) – DDD–DDM

See full entry requirements and other qualifications we accept

English language requirements
  • English Language proficiency at a minimum of IELTS band 6.5 with no component score below 6.0.

See alternative English language qualifications

We also accept other standard English tests and qualifications, as long as they meet the minimum requirements of your course.

If you don't meet the English language requirements yet, you can achieve the level you need by successfully completing a pre-sessional English programme before you start your course.

Ideal skills and qualities for this course

As well as meeting the entry requirements, we’re looking for excellent skills in academic reading and writing and the ability to think critically and express yourself clearly - verbally and in writing.

You do not have to be a confident presenter to get a place on this degree; we'll help you develop those skills throughout the course.

To prepare for this course, knowledge of current affairs and business and law in the news is useful. Reading a quality newspaper is a good starting point.

Tom's story

'Becoming a parent made me realise that I didn't just want a job that was comfortable. I wanted a career with stability and possibilities, where I could fulfil my potential and provide.'

Tom studied LLB Law with Business and is now a lawyer.

Read Tom's story in full

Careers and opportunities

Law is an incredibly flexible degree. If you don’t believe us, take a look at our blog about the 7 reasons to study law

When you graduate you’ll be ready to take your next step to train as a solicitor, a barrister or a Chartered Legal Executive. It’s worth noting that Chartered Legal Executives can now become judges, coroners, advocates and partners in law firms.

You'll graduate with a wide range of transferable skills that will make you very employable across a range of other sectors. Your knowledge of business will be particularly helpful when applying for roles within corporate law or business management.

Graduates of this course have gone on to work for companies such as:

  • ABN Amro Bank
  • Oracle
  • Barlow Robbins Solicitors
  • Moss & Coleman Solicitors
  • Direct Line Insurance
  • Phaidon International (recruitment)
  • Zurich Insurance
  • Andrew and Andrew Solicitors
  • Digital Advertising Consultants (DAC)
  • Wansbroughs Solicitors
  • GSK (GlaxoSmithKline)
  • Travers Smith LLP

Graduates of this course have secured jobs such as:

  • Trainee solicitor
  • Paralegal
  • Recruitment consultant
  • Business development manager
  • Project management consultant
  • Compliance officer
  • Estate agent
  • Teacher (post 16)

Other graduates have continued their studies at postgraduate level or set up successful businesses with help and support from the University.

Bespoke work experience and careers support

To give you the best chance of securing a great job when you finish your course, our Careers and Employability Service can help you find relevant work experience during your course.

We'll help you identify placements, internships and voluntary roles that will complement your studies and build your CV.

From the moment you enrol until 5 years after graduation you'll have the support of our Careers and Employability Service. Alongside this we run our own Business and Law 'Career-ready' programme, which gives you free access to events, networking and experiences tailored to the business and law world.

Entrepreneurs in Residence

If you're interested in setting up your own business while you study, you can get support on this course from the Entrepreneurs in Residence programme. Our Entrepreneurs in Residence are experienced business professionals who work with us to deliver group workshops and 1-to-1 drop-in clinics to help you plan and market your business idea.

Optional work placement year

You can boost your employability even more by taking an optional paid placement year between years 2 and 3.

Previous law students have had placements in organisations such as:

  • Verisona Law
  • Opus 2 International
  • GE Capital
  • Oracle
  • Rolls Royce Motor Cars
Portrait shot of Paige laughing in a street

My year at EY has added an unbelievable amount of value to my overall university experience. I have developed a range of transferable skills, gained an insight into the world of professional working and made connections which will inevitably support my future career plans. I now feel super prepared and motivated to graduate.

Paige Olivia Auxilly, LLB Law with Business

Whatever your career ambitions, our placements team will be there to help and guide you and you'll maintain contact with your tutors throughout the year.

The average salary for a 12-month paid placement is £16,500, Your salary can range between substantially higher than this and the national minimum wage, depending on your placement. You'll only pay a very small percentage of your tuition fee for this year.

You could also choose to set up your own business, or take a voluntary placement.

What you'll study

Each module on this course is worth a certain number of credits.

In each year, you need to study modules worth a total of 120 credits. For example, 4 modules worth 20 credits and 1 module worth 40 credits.

Modules

Year 1

Core modules

What you'll do

You'll develop knowledge and understanding in this area, providing an understanding of why the English legal system is what it is today, while also developing wider study skills.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Understand and discuss the operation of the English legal system, including classifications of law, the court structure and the sources of law
  • Access and use legal materials and other appropriate sources of information contained in hard copy and electronic formats
  • Develop and present legal and contextual arguments
  • Consider different ways of learning, and the role of feedback in improving learning and performance
  • Effectively read, comprehend, interpret and evaluate complex primary legal sources such as statute law and case law
Teaching activities
  • 23 hours of lectures
  • 23 hours of seminars
  • 23 hours of practical classes and workshops
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 131 hours studying independently. This is around 8 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • 2 x 1,500-word written assignment (50% of final mark, each)

What you'll do

You'll develop your knowledge and understanding of these principles, so you're able to provide advice to fictional clients, focusing on the application of principles, current issues in contract law and problematic situations.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate the ability to research primary sources and use those to construct legal argument
  • Demonstrate an understanding of key principles of contract law
  • Demonstrate the ability to identify the relevant law, apply it to problem situations and reach reasoned conclusions
Teaching activities
  • 23 x 1-hour lectures
  • 23 x 1-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 154 hours studying independently. This is around 9.5 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,000-word written assignment
  • a 90-minute written exam

What you'll do

You'll develop knowledge and understanding of these principles to provide advice to fictional clients.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of criminal offences in terms of their definitions
  • Analyse factual situations and identify and apply relevant legal rules and principles to assess potential outcomes in terms of criminal liability
  • Demonstrate the ability to research primary sources and use them to construct legal argument, both written and oral
Teaching activities
  • 23 x 1-hour lectures
  • 23 x 1-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 154 hours studying independently. This is around 9.5 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word written assignment (30% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (70% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll be introduced to key constitutional principles and the legal and political issues related to the operation of the British Constitution. You'll also learn about the processes for addressing a citizen's grievances or complaints (mechanisms of redress) that are available to citizens against public bodies.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Access and use paper and electronic sources related to the operation of the British Constitution
  • Describe key features of the British Constitution
  • Explain constitutional principles and how they apply within the UK constitution
  • Recognise the legal and non-legal forms of redress available against public bodies and bodies performing public duties in England, and explain how such avenues of redress can be used in practical situations
Teaching activities
  • 23 hours of lectures
  • 23 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,000-word written assignment (30% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (70% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll explore the relationship between theory and management practice by selecting and applying appropriate theory in an organisational context, using this application and analysis to identify key issues and develop appropriate recommendations for action. You'll reflect on your own perspectives and experiences from working in organisations, being managed and/or managing others, and exploring these in the context of effective management and the achievement of individual and organisational goals.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Explain the nature and context of working and managing in organisations with diverse membership, including consideration of equality, diversity, cross-cultural and ethical issues in the management of people
  • Select, examine and apply appropriate theoretical and conceptual frameworks used in the analysis, discussion, and potential resolution of people management issues, within an organisational context
  • Identify and apply some key activities of people management practice (from a managerial perspective), and consider their potential impact in achieving organisational goals, and the role of line managers in their implementation
  • Review contemporary issues in managing people in organisations and identify the implications of these for managers and other employees
  • To encourage students to reflect on their own perspectives on working in organisations and managing others, exploring these within the context of effective management and the achievement of individual and organisational goals
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 2-hour lectures
  • 12 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 40-minute oral assessment and presentation (30% of final mark)
  • a coursework project (20% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (50% of final mark)

What you'll do

You also look at the applications of these principles and rules, and the current issues and problem situations around them.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Access and use paper and electronic primary sources relating to the law of tort
  • Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the principles of the tort of negligence
  • Assess the duties which are imposed, and the interests which are protected by other torts
  • Demonstrate the ability to identify the relevant law and apply it to problem situations in order to provide arguable conclusions
Teaching activities
  • 12 hours of lectures
  • 24 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 164 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word written assignment (30% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (70% of final mark)

What you’ll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Recognise key employability qualities
  • Evaluate and improve your personal development skills
  • Develop legal research and academic citizenship skills
Teaching activities
  • 8 x 1-hour seminars
  • 1 x 1-hour tutorials
  • 2 x 1-hour lectures

Year 2

Core modules

What you'll do

You'll develop your knowledge and understanding of these principles, and apply it to give advice to a fictional client.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the main principles and concepts of Land Law
  • Apply your knowledge and understanding of Land Law to communicate in writing a solution to a legal problem, in a clear and concise manner
  • Demonstrate the ability to identify where the law is ambiguous or in need of reform and make appropriate proposals for change
Teaching activities
  • 11 x 1-hour lectures
  • 11 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 167 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word coursework exercise (50% of final mark)
  • a 2,000-word coursework exercise (50% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll use your knowledge of these concepts to develop an insight into the future of the law industry.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Examine and evaluate key propositions underlying strategic management theory and practice in national and global contexts
  • Appraise strategic issues at business and corporate levels using appropriate frameworks and evidence to identify, develop and recommend strategic options
  • Propose appropriate strategies for issue resolution and the strategic changes needed for their implementation
Teaching activities
  • 24 hours of lectures
  • 24 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 2,000-word coursework exercise (50% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (50% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll look at questions about the purpose of organisations of all types, then consider how they are led and governed. You'll also gain an understanding of related concepts, including stakeholder theory, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and ethical decision making, as well as issues of practical application such as stakeholder management, strategic CSR and social accounting.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of social, environmental and economic challenges affecting modern business
  • Construct an assessment tool for the comparison of organisations against the theoretical frameworks of ethics, governance and sustainability
  • Analyse and identify the wider stakeholder implications of alternative business models
  • Assess the role of leaders and the impact of leadership on organisations
Teaching activities
  • 11 x 1-hour lectures
  • 11 x 2-hour practical classes and workshops 
  • 11 x 1-hour tutorials
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 3,000-word report (45% of final mark)
  • a 1,500-word written assignment (55% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll then apply these principles to problematic situations, using your knowledge of statute and case law to develop your analysis. This core module follows on from the core Land Law module which is also studied in year two.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the principles and rules of equity and the law of trusts
  • Use independent research to examine a particular aspect of the law of equity and trusts
  • Analyse problem situations and apply the appropriate legal principles to that situation in order to construct coherent and logical conclusions
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 1-hour lectures
  • 12 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 164 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word written assignment (30% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (70% of final mark)

What you'll do

These skills will be needed for your final year professional and research based modules.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Develop the skills necessary to engage in critical analysis of the law
  • Identify legal issues worthy of further investigation and research
  • Access and retrieve relevant sources and assess their quality and authoritative value
  • Develop a range of legal writing skills relevant to professional communication and academic research
Teaching activities
  • 11 x 1-hour lectures
  • 11 x 2-hour seminars
  • 6 x 1-hour tutorials
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 161 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 500-word written assignment (20% of final mark)
  • a 2,500-word portfolio (80% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll explore the core rights provided by the European Convention on Human Rights and implemented via the Human Rights Act 1998. You'll examine the role of the common law as an alternative means for protecting fundamental rights.

You'll focus on the interpretation of rights in light of underlying principles, particularly on how human dignity informs and shapes the content of human rights norms.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate your knowledge of the nature and extent of the mechanisms for the protection of human rights in the UK legal system
  • Understand the role of the European Court of Human Rights in shaping UK human rights practice
  • Analyse the main methods and tools of human rights adjudication
  • Apply your knowledge and understanding of human rights legislation to problem scenarios in order to reach reasoned conclusions
Teaching activities
  • 4 hours of tutorials
  • 10 hours of lectures
  • 20 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 166 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word written assignment including essay (30% of final mark)
  • a 2,500-word written assignment including essay (70% of final mark)

What you’ll do

You'll take part in two cohort sessions, four group tutorials and and two scheduled one-to-one meetings with a personal tutor.

What you’ll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Recognise key employability qualities
  • Evaluate and develop your personal development skills
  • Develop legal research and academic citizenship skills
Teaching activities
  • 1 hour of tutorials
  • 2 hours of cohort sessions
  • 4 hours of group sessions

Optional modules

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate understanding of the CLE project they have chosen
  • Be competent in a range of communication skills which they will need in the CLE project of their choice

Full module details to be confirmed.

Year 3 - Optional placement year

Optional placement

What you'll do

You'll complete a placement portfolio over the duration of the placement and improve your professional skills such as self-reflection, networking, evaluating progress and using the portfolio. You'll have support from the Placement Office (PO) and a Placement Tutor, to plan, and during, your placement including a visit from your Placement Tutor.

Successful completion of the placement will be recognised in your transcript of achievement and your degree certificate will state 'in the sandwich mode'.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Use the skills you've developed in the workplace, e.g. communication, time management, IT skills
  • Identify personal areas for improvement or training to enhance future employability
  • Use your record of experiences and training gained on placement to reflect on your skill and progress
  • Link what you learned on the rest of your undergraduate degree course to what you learn on placement
  • Understand your options regarding career planning, and future professional development
Teaching activities
  • a full time work placement
  • 1 x placement day
  • meetings with your placement tutor
Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 2,500 word portfolio (100% of final mark)

Year 3

Core modules

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Access, use and critically evaluate primary and secondary sources relating to the normative framework of the European Union (EU) and the development of EU law
  • Evaluate judicial interpretations of primary and secondary EU law and accomplish an up-to-date and in-depth understanding of the relevant developments in the fields covered in the syllabus
  • Critically appraise EU substantive law relating to the fundamental freedoms and demonstrate an appreciation of the interplay between economic freedoms and the social dimension of EU law
  • Apply the rules and principles of EU law, as these have been developed and interpreted by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), to realistic problem scenarios and critically analyse the issues raised by such interpretation in scholarly debates, in the context of essay questions
Teaching activities
  • 10 x 2-hour lectures
  • 10 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 160 hours studying independently. This is around 9.5 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 2,000-word written assignment (50% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (50% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll also learn about shares and share capital, shareholder remedies, capital maintenance, corporate governance, loan capital, and corporate rescue and insolvency. The seminars will draw on directed reading and independent research and will provide opportunities for debate, the analysis of case studies, small group discussion, problem solving and role play.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate a sound understanding of the relevant legislative framework
  • Critically analyse factual situations and identify and apply relevant legal concepts
  • Resolve novel problems relating to relevant aspects of company law
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 1-hour lectures
  • 12 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word written assignment (45% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (55% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll take part in two group tutorials and two one-to-one meetings with a personal tutor.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Recognise key employability qualities
  • Evaluate and develop your personal development skills
  • Develop legal research and academic citizenship skills
Teaching activities
  • 2 hours of group tutorials
  • 2 hours of cohort sessions

Optional modules

What you'll do

You'll identify, discuss and critically examine all major intellectual property (IP) rights, including patents, trademarks, copyright, design rights, passing off and the law of confidence. The module makes reference to other jurisdictions as a way to critically evaluate the IP framework in the UK, as well as to international treaties and other external legal sources.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate an in-depth knowledge and understanding of substantive UK intellectual property law
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the different forms of intellectual property law in protecting ideas from unauthorised use
  • Develop logical and coherent arguments to support reasoned conclusions when answering problem or discussion based questions
  • Demonstrate the ability to research points of law by using a variety of online and offline sources
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • 2 x 2,000-word written assignments (50% of final mark, each)

What you'll do

You'll also critically reflect on the human rights issues involved in family and child law.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate an in-depth and systematic understanding of family and child law through independent research
  • Develop and present critical analysis of different aspects of family and child law
  • Identify and apply relevant law to scenarios in order to reach coherent and logical conclusions
  • Demonstrate insight on family and child law in action
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 2-hour lectures
  • 12 x 1-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • 2 x 2,000-word written assignments (50% of final mark, each)

What you'll do

You must pass all assessments and pass the CILEx Client Care Skills assessment to satisfy CILEx accreditation requirements.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate a solid understanding of relevant rules and procedures and their effect on practical problems
  • Critically analyse factual situations and identify and apply relevant legal rules
  • Critically analyse factual situations and identify and apply relevant procedures
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 176 hours studying independently. This is around 11 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • 2 x 195-minute written exams (50% of final mark, each)

What you'll do

You must pass the assessment for this module and for CILEx Level 6 Practice to satisfy the CILEx accreditation requirements and get the CILEx graduate fast track diploma. During seminars you'll take part in practical activities, discussion of issues and preparation of documents.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Produce a written evaluation of a simulated negotiation
  • Recognise aspects of best practice in negotiation
  • Communicate information in writing to a client clearly and coherently
  • Produce a record of a telephone negotiation for a client file
  • Prepare effectively for a client meeting
  • Deal appropriately with client complaints
Teaching activities
  • 4 x 1-hour lectures
  • 4 x 1-hour seminars
Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 5,000-word written assignment (100% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll also develops skills appropriate to civil and criminal court or tribunal appearances.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate the ability to prepare and deliver advocacy (oral and/or written) appropriate to a realistic criminal law trial/hearing, reflecting the theory of advocacy and professional ethics
  • Demonstrate the ability to prepare and deliver advocacy (oral and/or written) appropriate to a realistic civil law trial/hearing, reflecting the theory of advocacy and professional ethics
  • Critically reflect on your own performance and development, in oral and/or written argument
  • Critically engage with the personal development of advocacy skills, with reference to theoretical and professional writing on advocacy
Teaching activities
  • 22 x 2-hour practical classes and workshops
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 156 hours studying independently. This is around 9.5 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word portfolio (40% of final mark) - including videos of a criminal advocacy meeting
  • a 1,500-word portfolio (60% of final mark) - including videos of a civil advocacy meeting

What you'll do

You'll explore the nature of the employment contract and how its grown independently of commercial contract principles. Using contractual and statutory sources, you'll look at traditional and modern employment issues, involving the modern 'gig' economy, the gender pay gap, dismissal, redundancy, and the rights of part-time, temporary, and zero-hours, workers

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Investigate paper and electronic primary legal sources relating to the employment relationship
  • Differentiate and discriminate between the principles of contract and statute law as problem solving devices in the regulation of the employment relationship
  • Interpret and apply the law to realistic problem scenarios
  • Conduct independent research into developing principles of common law and statutory interventions
  • Provide analysis of various legal principles and developments in the field of employment
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 2-hour lectures
  • 12 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word coursework exercise (30% of final mark)
  • a 2,000-word coursework exercise (70% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll develop skills such as client interviewing and management, note taking, report writing, legal letter writing, and in some cases administration and document drafting. You'll be expected to contribute to the achievement of the partner organisation's aims and objectives and develop your confidence in communication and the critical application of legal theory to practical problem.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Critically analyse legal problems, synthesise new and existing knowledge and consider and develop alternative practical solutions
  • With limited guidance, manage detailed research in relevant areas of law and communicate clearly and effectively in a range of forms and to different audiences
  • Develop legal skills such as drafting, interviewing, negotiation and communication and be able to work in a range of environments responding positively
  • Reflect on and critically analyse your learning, identifying areas of strength, and the areas you'll need to improve for future employment
  • Undertake assessment of the practical skills you demonstrated with the external partner your worked alongside
Teaching activities
  • 3 x 1-hour practical classes and workshops
  • 6 x 1-hour tutorial
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 391 hours a week working independently. This is around 24 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 3,000-word coursework exercise (50% of final mark)
  • a 2,000-word coursework exercise (20% of final mark)
  • a practical skills assessment (30% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll use your academic legal knowledge to help members of the local community, developing skills such as client interviewing and management, note taking, report writing, legal letter writing and document drafting. You'll also be responsible for marketing clinics to the community, getting an understanding of how a client base is founded and developed, and increasing your confidence in communication.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Critically analyse clients’ enquiries and carry out research to identify and apply relevant legal rules and procedure which is documented, and communicated to the client in an appropriate format
  • Demonstrate a range of practical legal skills, including: interviewing, report writing, legal research, drafting, file management and effective communication
  • Reflect on and critically analyse your learning from the module, identifying areas of strength, and those that you need to improve upon
Teaching activities
  • 1 x 2 or 3-hour clinic sessions a week
  • 12 x 2-hour lectures
  • 9 x 1-hour tutorials
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 267 hours studying independently. This is around 8 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 4,000-word coursework exercise (25% of final mark)
  • a 2,000-word coursework exercise (50% of final mark)
  • a 10-minute oral assessment and presentation (25% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll study the historical background and main principles of corporate criminal liability such as the doctrine of identification and the rules of attribution used to establish the criminal liability of corporations. You'll also look at the rules that govern the criminal proceedings of corporations and how they can be sentenced.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the law and procedural rules governing corporate criminal liability
  • Critically examine the current law and procedure
  • Apply your knowledge and understanding of the law in the field of white collar crime to complex problem scenarios to reach reasoned conclusions
Teaching activities
  • 12 hours of lectures
  • 24 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 164 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 2,000-word written assignment (50% of final mark)
  • a 2,000-word coursework exercise (50% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll develop commercial awareness and relevant legal and academic skills.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate a detailed knowledge of the law and practice in key areas of commercial law
  • Critically evaluate the law relating to businesses and commercial transactions
  • Analyse complex factual situations and identify and apply relevant legal concepts in order to reach reasoned conclusions and provide advice and recommendations
  • Understand and apply complex statutory and case law material
  • Demonstrate an awareness and understanding of current legal issues, as well as problems relating to businesses and commercial transactions
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 1-hour seminars
  • 12 x 1-hour lectures
  • 12 x 1-hour tutorials
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 2,000-word written assignment (50% of final mark)
  • a 90-minute written exam (50% of final mark)

What you’ll do

Your topic areas will be decided by a tutor, based on their own expertise and research, and you'll be allocated a supervisor based on your chosen topic area. You'll meet with your tutor as part of a group in four timetabled tutor sessions.

What you’ll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Formulate a plan suitable for development into an extended essay
  • Display evidence of effective research through proper citation and discussion of relevant legal authorities and other primary and secondary sources
  • Provide a clear and accurate explanation of the areas of the law relevant to the project
  • Demonstrate a range of relevant skills, including the ability to subject the law to effective doctrinal and critical analysis which, where appropriate, involves the synthesis of legal and contextual issues, and the formulation of appropriate conclusions and recommendations
  • Adopt a structure and writing style appropriate to a piece of independent legal research at undergraduate level
Teaching activities
  • 4 x 1-hour tutorials
  • 10 hours of project supervision
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 186 hours studying independently. This is around 11.5 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 4,000-word coursework project (100% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll use the e-learning platform to examine issues around jurisprudence and ethics. Set texts will include work by legal and polictical theorists such as HLA Hart, John Rawls, Karl Marx and Hans Kelsen. You'll also examine critical and feminist approaches to law.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Critically analyse leading jurisprudential theories in the context of contemporary legal problems
  • Demonstrate an understanding of competing theories about the nature of law
  • Analyse differing critical approaches to law and legal theory
Teaching activities
  • 11 x 2-hour seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 178 hours studying independently. This is around 11 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • 2 x 2,000-word written assignments (50% of final mark, each)

What you'll do

You'll learn about historical and current contexts of PIL and different theoretical perspectives. You'll also get an awareness of the foundation, nature and institutions of international law.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the main principles of public international law
  • Demonstrate a basic understanding of international law from a theoretical perspective
  • Critically examine international law and its application in international disputes
  • Ability to identify and examine critically and in some depth key issues of international law
  • Undertake independent research in the field of international law
Teaching activities
  • 24 hours of lectures
  • 24 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 152 hours studying independently. This is around 9 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 3-hour written exam (100% of final mark)

What you’ll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you’ll be able to:

  • Demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the main principles and concepts of landlord and tenant law
  • Communicate a solution to a problem in landlord and tenant law, in a clear and concise manner
  • Compare and contrast the facts within a given scenario using statute and case law to recognise ambiguity and provide arguable conclusions
Teaching activities
  • 12 x 1-hour lectures
  • 12 x 2-hour seminars
Independent Study Time

We recommend you spend at least 164 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 3,000-word written assessment (100% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll learn about the principles and rules of the law of succession and discuss current issues and contentious areas. You'll then apply these principles to problem situations, using your knowledge of statute and case law to develop your analysis.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Outline the law relating to intestacy and advise as to an intestate estate distribution
  • Explain key principles of the law of succession and assess the extent to which they apply to a particular scenario
  • Apply your knowledge and understanding of the law to problem scenarios to reach coherent and logical conclusions
Teaching activities
  • 12 hours of lectures
  • 24 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 164 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a written assignment including essay (30% of final mark)
  • a written assignment including essay (70% of final mark)

What you'll do

You'll develop a critical and reflective knowledge of social care law by examining it in light of changing social policy context. You'll consider the role of law in managing standards in social care practice. Part of this will involve examining the growth in care worker offences in criminal law and the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 on service provision in the social care sector.

You'll also be introduced to the law on adult safeguarding under the Mental Capacity Act 2005, Care Act 2014, and the inherent jurisdiction of the High Court.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Critically understand the legal framework governing the provision and regulation of social care in England and Wales
  • Appreciate the role of the Human Rights Act 1998 in shaping social care practice in England and Wales
  • Show an in-depth understanding of the adult safeguarding framework under legislation and common law
  • Demonstrate critical awareness of the impact of social policy and political agendas on the development and implementation of social care law
Teaching activities
  • 12 hours of lectures
  • 24 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 164 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • 2x written assignments including essays (50% of final mark, each)

What you'll do

Data protection law regulates everything from legal responsibility for cyber-security breaches, to how social networking sites store and use the data of their users, and even how individuals handle data about others. As more organisations collect and process personal data, and find themselves subject to a growing array of legal obligations, demand for specialist legal advice in this field will only increase.

You'll explore how the law aims to protect the rights of individuals and facilitate the free movement and usage of personal data. You'll also look at contemporary challenges posed to data protection law by emerging technologies.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Critically evaluate core concepts of data protection law by developing research and theoretical and practical understanding to arrive at appropriate conclusions
  • Demonstrate an awareness of practice-related issues and challenges relevant to data protection law and policy
  • Show a critical awareness and understanding of current and emerging legal and policy issues and challenges, observable in the data protection field
  • Work independently to reach reasoned conclusions from complex theoretical or problem-based data protection law-related scenarios, and provide advice and recommendations
  • Form an argument through the research and review of academic data protection law materials
  • Communicate effectively about data protection law related ideas and concepts to others with knowledge of the subject
Teaching activities
  • 11 hours of lectures
  • 22 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 167 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 3,000-word written assignment including essay (100% of final mark)

What you'll do

You will explore particular issues raised in relation to race, sex, gender, religion or belief, disability, age, and sexual orientation. These include religious beliefs conflicting with rights attached to sexual orientation, bans on the display of religious symbols and clothing, racism, and women’s rights at work, and other topical issues.

You will focus on the principle of equality as it is given expression in the UK law, notably by the Equality Act 2010, and the Influence of EU Law and the European Convention of Human Rights (Via the Human Rights Act 1998). You will develop a sense of responsibility allied to a commitment to social justice issues.

What you'll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Understand and critically analyse key principles and concepts of discrimination
  • Understand the key protected characteristics, and analyse how they manifest in disputes
  • Analyse how the key protected characteristics may conflict with each other
  • Question and analyse the key case law
Teaching activities
  • 22 hours of lectures
  • 22 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 156 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 1,500-word written assignment including essay (30% of final mark)
  • a 2,000-word written assignment including essay (70% of final mark)

What you’ll do

You'll develop knowledge, skills and understanding of the legal principles in order to compare and evaluate the different approaches to resolving conflict.

What you’ll learn

When you complete this module successfully, you'll be able to:

  • Understand and analyse the key characteristics of dispute resolution processes
  • Compare and categorise the dispute resolution processes available to lawyers to select the most appropriate dispute resolution process for a client's needs
  • Understand and apply various dispute resolution skills to solve simple disputes
  • Reflect on your performance and consider the links between reflective practice and wellbeing as a student and practitioner
Teaching activities
  • 12 hours of lectures
  • 24 hours of seminars
Independent study time

We recommend you spend at least 164 hours studying independently. This is around 10 hours a week over the duration of the module.

Assessment

On this module, you'll be assessed through:

  • a 3,000-word coursework portfolio (100% of final mark)

We use the best and most current research and professional practice alongside feedback from our students to make sure course content is relevant to your future career or further studies.

Therefore, some course content may change over time to reflect changes in the discipline or industry and some optional modules may not run every year. If a module doesn’t run, we’ll let you know as soon as possible and help you choose an alternative module.

Find the right course for you: we offer a number of qualifying law degrees as joint or single honours:

If you're interested in exploring a theoretical analysis of crime and punishment, alongside your fully accredited law degree that covers the foundations of legal knowledge, then this LLB (Hons) Law with Criminology could be the right choice for you.

This is a fully accredited law degree that covers all the foundations of legal knowledge, but with an international angle. You'll look at foreign policy and international thought. Explore our LLB (Hons) Law with International Relations.

We offer a single honours LLB (Hons) Law degree. This fully accredited law degree allows you to study a broader range of law modules.

Optional study abroad year

Between your second and third year you can choose to study abroad at one of our partner universities. This allows you to experience a different culture, enhance your CV to stand out in the job market, grow your confidence, and open up personal and professional opportunities.

We have partnerships with universities in Europe, Asia, Australia and North America. All classes are delivered in English.

You don't have to study law during this year. You could take this opportunity to enrich your CV by gaining knowledge of another relevant subject such as history, politics or human rights.

You'll get support from the faculty's Global Support Office with identifying and applying to suitable destinations, and you'll benefit from ongoing contact and support during your year abroad.

You do not pay any fees to the overseas university, but you will continue to pay a reduced tuition fee to Portsmouth during your year abroad. You'll still be able to get both your tuition fee and maintenance loans. You may also qualify for a government travel grant

Teaching​

As a University we're moving towards a permanent arrangement of blended learning, keeping the elements that really work. There are no longer any lectures on this course. These have been replaced by a series of online modules.

The majority of your learning will still be face-to-face and will include:

  • seminars
  • tutorials
  • workshops
  • practical sessions

We pride ourselves on the academic support we offer our students. You'll have a personal tutor, student engagement officers and study support staff to help you throughout your studies.

Assessment

The way you qualify as a solicitor is changing and we want to make sure that we prepare you as much as possible for the new SQE exams. The SQE exams are multiple choice, so we're adapting our assessment methods so that you're confident with this method of assessment.

Your assessment will depend on which modules you take, but it's likely to include:

  • exams
  • problem scenarios
  • written reports and essays
  • presentations
  • practical projects

Teaching Staff profiles

These are some of the expert staff who'll teach you on this course. To learn more about our teaching staff's active engagement in research and in addressing current legal challenges, explore our law blog.

user profile icon

Dr Fang Ma

  • Job Title Senior Lecturer in the Law School
  • Email Address fang.ma@port.ac.uk
  • Department Portsmouth Law School
  • Faculty Faculty of Business and Law
  • PhD Supervisor PhD Supervisor
Image of Mrs Joanne Atkinson

Mrs Joanne Atkinson

  • Job Title Principal Lecturer in the Law School
  • Email Address Joanne.Atkinson@port.ac.uk
  • Department Portsmouth Law School
  • Faculty Faculty of Business and Law
Image of Mr Joe Sekhon

Mr Joe Sekhon

  • Job Title Senior Lecturer in the Law School
  • Email Address Joe.Sekhon@port.ac.uk
  • Department Portsmouth Law School
  • Faculty Faculty of Business and Law

How you'll spend your time

One of the main differences between school or college and university is how much control you have over your learning.

We're planning for most of your learning to be supported by timetabled face-to-face teaching with some elements of online provision. Please be aware, the balance between face-to-face teaching and online provision may change depending on Government restrictions. You'll also do lots of independent study with support from staff and our virtual learning environment, Moodle. Find out more about how our teaching has transformed to best support your learning.

A typical week

We recommend you spend at least 35 hours a week studying for this degree.

Your total study time will depend on the modules that you take, but in your first year this is what your week may look like:

  • timetabled teaching activities (seminars, tutorials, classes and workshops) = about 13 hours a week
  • independent study (research, reading, coursework and project work, alone or in a group) = about 22 hours a week

You'll probably do more independent study and have less scheduled teaching in years 2 and 3, but this depends on which modules you choose.

Term dates

The academic year runs from September to June. There are breaks at Christmas and Easter.

See term dates

Supporting your learning

The amount of timetabled teaching you'll get on your degree might be less than what you're used to at school or college, but you'll also get support via video, phone and face-to-face from teaching and support staff when you need it. These include the following people and services:

Types of support

Your personal tutor helps you make the transition to independent study and gives you academic and personal support throughout your time at university.

You'll have regular scheduled meetings with your personal tutor. They're also available by appointment if you want to chat with them about anything that can't wait until your next meeting.

In addition to the support you get from your personal tutor, you'll also have support from student engagement officers. They can give you confidential, impartial advice on anything to do with your studies and personal wellbeing, and refer you to specialist support services if you need extra help or support.

You'll have help from a team of study support tutors. Based within the Faculty of Business and Law, these tutors are familiar with the specific requirements your assignments and work closely with faculty academics. This means they can give you focused support with the specific study skills you need to be successful on your course. They're available face-to-face, by phone, email, and by video call.

They can help with:

  • Academic writing (for example, essays, reports, dissertations, projects and literature reviews)
  • Reflective writing skills
  • Critical thinking skills
  • Delivering presentations (including observing and filming presentations)
  • Understanding and using assignment feedback
  • Managing your time and workload
  • Revision and exam techniques

If you're a mature student, specialist support to help you return to learning is available.

As well as support from faculty staff and your personal tutor, you can use the University's Academic Skills Unit (ASK).

ASK provides one-to-one support in areas such as:

  • Academic writing
  • Note taking
  • Time management
  • Critical thinking
  • Presentation skills
  • Referencing
  • Working in groups
  • Revision, memory and exam techniques

Library staff are available in person or by email, phone, or online chat to help you make the most of the University's library resources. You can also request one-to-one appointments and get support from librarians who specialise in business and law.

The library is open 24 hours a day, every day, in term time.

If you require extra support because of a disability or additional learning need our specialist team can help you.

They'll help you to

  • discuss and agree on reasonable adjustments
  • liaise with other University services and facilities, such as the library
  • access specialist study skills and strategies tutors, and assistive technology tutors, on a 1-to-1 basis or in groups
  • liaise with external services

If English isn't your first language, you can do one of our English language courses to improve your written and spoken English language skills before starting your degree. Once you're here, you can take part in our free In-Sessional English (ISE) programme to improve your English further.

​Course costs and funding

Tuition fees (2022 start)

  • UK/Channel Islands and Isle of Man students – £9,250 a year (may be subject to annual increase)
  • EU students – £9,250 a year, including our Transition Scholarship (may be subject to annual increase)
  • International students – £16,200 a year (subject to annual increase)

You won't pay any extra tuition fees to another university for taking part in a study/work abroad activity if you choose to do it for the whole academic year. During a year abroad you'll only have to pay a reduced fee to the University of Portsmouth.

Funding your studies

Find out how to fund your studies, including the scholarships and bursaries you could get. You can also find more about tuition fees and living costs, including what your tuition fees cover.

Applying from outside the UK? Find out about funding options for international students.

Additional course costs

These course-related costs aren’t included in the tuition fees. So you’ll need to budget for them when you plan your spending.

Our accommodation section shows your accommodation options and highlights how much it costs to live in Portsmouth.

You may have to read several recommended books or textbooks for each module that you study.

You won't need to buy the core textbooks as you'll get free access to Law Trove and you can borrow most books from our extensive library. Law Trove also gives you free access to lots of additional law books to deepen understanding and enhance learning.

If you choose to buy the course books they may cost up to £30 each.

We recommend that you budget £75 a year for photocopying, memory sticks, printing charges, binding and specialist printing.

If your final year includes a major project, there could be cost for transport or accommodation related to your research activities. The amount will depend on the project you choose.

Apply

How to apply

To start this course in 2022, apply through UCAS. You'll need:

  • the UCAS course code – M1NC
  • our institution code – P80

If you'd prefer to apply directly, use our online application form.

You can also sign up to an Open Day to:

  • Tour our campus, facilities and halls of residence
  • Speak with lecturers and chat with our students 
  • Get information about where to live, how to fund your studies and which clubs and societies to join

If you're new to the application process, read our guide on applying for an undergraduate course.

How to apply from outside the UK

See the 'How to apply' section above for details of how to apply. You can also get an agent to help with your application. Check your country page for details of agents in your region.

To find out what to include in your application, head to the how to apply page of our international students section. 

If you don't meet the English language requirements for this course yet, you can achieve the level you need by successfully completing a pre-sessional English programme before you start your course.

Admissions terms and conditions

When you accept an offer to study at the University of Portsmouth, you also agree to abide by our Student Contract (which includes the University's relevant policies, rules and regulations). You should read and consider these before you apply.

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