This is a Leverhulme-funded major research project about militaro-humanitarian interventions in Africa, how they are mobilised, why they are significant and why some appear more successful than others. Combining Putnam’s Two-Level Games (TLG) with insights from regime complexity theory (forum shopping, norm-stretching, cross-institutional strategies), this research explores the coalition-building and -rebuilding strategies used by France in various capacities: as the ‘lead nation’, coordinating the planning, mounting, and execution of [an] operation’; as a ‘joint lead nation', spearheading a mission with another actor; and as a ‘functional lead agent’, assuming ‘specific critical subfunctions’.

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